What exercise equipment should astronauts have onboard spacecraft sent to Mars?



          It is estimated that a trip from Earth to Mars will take 5 months.   We know that astronauts on the International Space Station do 2 hours of physical exericise a day to maintain muscle and bone mass during their stays on the ISS.   It is worth considering that astronauts on a 10-month trip to Mars and back may require regular physical exercise while they live and work in a similar zero-gravity environment.


          A Study has shown that a 10-month mission without any exercise by the astronauts would result in Astronauts unable to do basic tasks:





           “Astronauts on a mission to Mars could lose nearly half their muscle strength during the long trip, giving them the physiques of senior citizens by the time they arrived, according to a new study.” writes Mike Wall.

           NASA has years of research and data on what is needed to mitigate bone and muscle loss for crew onboard the ISS.   The same technology will must likely be needed for any manned missions to Mars, as research suggests significant bone and muscle loss during a 10-month trip.  

           NASA has already determined what is needed to mitigate bone loss during long-term stays for astronauts onboard the ISS:




Not only is regular exercise needed, but a certain diet also supports healthy bone and muscle.  According to the above research, the keys to promoting health in the elderly are the same for astronauts:  “The three key elements for promoting the health of elderly people…. are nutrition, exercise and medicine.”

          At this time, no Spacecraft in production for missions to Mars are designed with any exercise equipment onboard.     As the research suggests, can a manned mission to Mars be successful without the necessary exercise equipment for the crew?






SpaceX  RED DRAGON (A Modified SpaceX Crew Dragon)






Yogurt Sundae Recipes

Here is a recipe for Yogurt Sundaes.

I’m not a chef.  I envy the chefs who are the actual artists at what they do.

Plain yogurt works best.   There are two versions: one with 2 yogurts, and one with 1 yogurt.  The 2 yogurt one is a normal sized dessert.    The 1 yogurt ones are nice for snacks.






Shakespeare’s Bookshelf to be my Primary Focus


I’m new to writing.  I’m learning my own style as I write for the website Shakespeare’s bookshelf:   Shakespeare’s Bookshelf.

Writers say that projects take a lot of work, and spreading yourself too thin on too many projects is never good.     And I can see that as I study and write about Shakespeare’s life.

Also, there is a wealth of science-fiction movies that explore space travel and stories in space.  The Martian.  The New Star Wars.  Also a lot of TV shows.  So many movies set in space.  While Shakespeare’s Bookshelf will be my primary focus, I hope I have time to work onside sci-fi, even if it’s small projects, short stories, a short film.

But having a primary focus and secondary focuses is a good thing, especially for me as I am very disorganized.  I should have completed a sci-fi novel (or two ) by now, because I used to write notes and ideas but then I don’t build anything from them.  I hope and I think I have a better understanding of the writing process (and the animation process, and music writing process) from more recent years and the many people who inspire on a daily basis with their wisdom.

I’m also going through a move this year as well.  So that is taking up a lot of my time as well.

The research needed for the story of Shakespeare’s England is immense.  People have written books about the world of Shakespeare before.  I can only imagine the amount of work it took for them to write those books and have a consistent quality to the writing.

Shakespeare’s England is worth studying, too.  The story of English composers and the music of 1500s England is a great part of the story, too. This is long before Bach or Handel, and yet they were writing amazing music.  The lyric writing was as good as the poetry of the day.  So Shakespeare was not only reading poetry, prose, and plays, he was also living at a time when music was also very popular and important part of English society.

I also have current projects and work that leaves me little free time for this type of project.  By focusing my energy on Shakespeare’s Bookshelf, it will ensure I make it as good as it can possibly be.


Paul Kanter


Product Photography Gear/Equipment

So to do Product photography, you’ll need a decent camera, which nowadays an entry-level DSLR camera is excellent quality, like a Canon T3i.  This camera even takes excellent video.

You’ll need someplace to photograph.  And some good lighting on whatever it is you’re photographing.  Some lighting solutions will take up space, but there are also tabletop lights, too.


Here are a few tabletop lights.  Tabletop Lights

You CAN buy a lightbox, but instead you can buy some white cardboard paper and it works just as well to have a white background.

Here is a whole kit with some lights and said lightbox that folds up/folds out to create a box.  Tabletop Photography Kit  Good price for just the lights.

For lights that have stands and stand on the ground, with light boxes to soften the light a bit, these are are good set:  Light Set

It uses bulbs you can get at a Home Depot or anywhere else.  To replace the bulbs it comes with.

The above even shows a mobile phone as the camera and it isn’t impossible given the quality of photographs that phones take nowadays.


So you have the lights and something to shoot on.   For a camera.


If you’re using a DSLR, a nice thing to have is a wireless remote control, so you don’t have to touch the camera at all when photographing.  (This also cuts down on any movement to the camera that might cause motion blur).

Camera Remote


Here is a nice package price that includes a Canon 6Ti, basic lens, and macrolense, as well as tripod, memory cards, remote control, and a camera bag.  Really good deal for the price:

Canon EOS Rebel T5i Bundle


For an idea of price range:

Here’s a less expensive Bundle without a macro-lens.  For most things a Macro-lens isn’t needed.   Its for tiny tiny details.  This Bundle gives you a Telephoto lens which zooms in for if you’re far away and need lots of zoom.  Not relevant for product photography, they are used for Sports and things like that.

If you’re on a budget this gives you a good camera with the things you’ll need.

Canon EOS T5 Bundle


Camera Batteries

Every Camera needs them. If you get a couple you can always have more than enough, and 1 charging while using the other, etc.    Good to buy in a bundle and some come with a charger.

for T5:

Camera Batteries for T5

for T5i:

Camera Batteries for T5i

When they aren’t name brand they aren’t expensive but they are still good quality.


That should do it for Product photography.  And again, with the camera Bundle, think about your price range, what you’re going to be using the Camera for besides Work.  There are bundles that are for video that come with microphones.


Look at the features shown for the cameras.  More expensive cameras may have the same technology or features you don’t need.  So buy according to your needs.

As for Photography tutorials, there are always websites and Youtube channels with information on every aspect of photography.


Basics of Logo Design

There are some principles of logo design that are universal.    Every logo is designed to be unique.  A search of logos within a given industry is helpful too, since the products of industries are unique, the logos created to sell those products are unique as well.

Here are logos from many different companies i many different industries.

Logo-complexHere are logos from video game publishers and companies

logo-video-game-developer-logo Logo-Testronic-Games-Client-Logos

Here are logos for social media and web companies:


There are similarities in design simplicity and differences in style.

The type of product, such as sporting foods or computers, is also important in determining the style of the logo.  (Also if the customer base is male or female or both.)

Every company exists within an ecosystem of brands.  I couldn’t say why web companies have one style of logo that is wholly different from sports or cars.

But every company strives for a logo that will last their company for many years.

Here is a website that can calculate an approximate cost for graphic designers, from free-lancers to design firms, as well as give an idea of the creative work that goes into designing a logo for a company:

Design Quote.Net

Any final logo design that is chosen should be able to sit comfortably side by side with other companies in a given field.

Black-Holes, Space-Time, and Uninhabitable Planets

A black-hole is not a place that humans want to go.  Travel into and past a black-hole’s event horizon and the danger posed by the black-hole’s gravitation increases to deadly proportions.  This same danger of uninhabitable conditions is also found if you travel too close to a star, Or if you travel to most of the planets in our solar system, land on their surfaces (if they have any), and try to live there without wearing a spacesuit.

Similar to the uninhabitable planets in our solar system, not every exoplanet is inhabitable either.  And yet the notion of space-time holds up around and on the surfaces of these planets.   Some may object that this is all theoretical, and they aren’t wrong, this is theoretical physics.

Black-holes, although having their own special qualities, may not in certain aspects be too different in some of their qualities to large planets such as Jupiter or Saturn.  The fact they have immense densities and gravity strong enough to trap light is indeed their uniquenesses.

It is important to remember that there are two separate notions of Space.  One is the empty void of the universe.  The other is the concept of Space-Time.    Also, space-time is a relative thing, in more ways than one.

So consider a scenario where two space-ships are parked outside a Black-hole.  One space-ship travels into the black-hole and the other does not.  Suppose the first space-ship that travelled into the black-hole never returned but was destroyed by the gravitational forces or the black-hole.  Space-time will have ended for that particular spaceship.  And yet space-time for the spaceship parked outside the black-hole would be unaffected.    The same would be true if you had two spaceships parked near an far-away exoplanet, or even parked in orbit around Jupiter or Saturn.

Models and Theories of the Universe are Not The Universe

In thinking about my previous blog post “Coordinate Singularities in Physics and the Actual Properties of the Universe”, in which I address the appearance of values of infinity within equations related to the density and size of  blackholes and the big bang singularity.

Sometimes some crazy and unexpected things happen in equations, but they are equations.  They are parts of larger models.  The models help us to understand the universe.   They can be said to be more or less accurate and more or less representative of what happens in our actual universe.   As was stated previously, anomalies and singularities that occur within equations are not always actual phenomenon in the universe.  The are only phenomenon that occur in equations, but not the real universe.

Some phenomenon that occur in equations do not actually occur in our real universe which the equations and models are trying to describe and act as models.   It reminds me of the old saying “The map is not the territory.”  It is a simple truth, but an important truth.  Models and theories of the universe have a similar relationship to reality.   Certain models and theories are used to understand and predict phenomenon and objects within our universe, but these models are not the universe itself, even if they are very accurate at predicting phenomenon.

The use of models, theories, and equations is necessary to the work of Science.   If a model or theory works 99% of the time and explains 99% of the universe, it is still important to consider those parts of the model or theory that fail to account for certain phenomenon within the universe or which are not accurate representations of the universe.

Models and theories of the universe are not the universe.

In the actual universe the actual density of a blackhole, a collapsed star, may be very large.  Stars have very large masses and densities.  Yet finite stars or finite matter also have finite densities, and a blackhole is only a finite collapsed star, without any additional matter added to it.  Gravity may work different, may be stronger or weaker, but the actual density of a solid can only ever be finite, or else what would it mean that something is infinitely dense?  Is that to say its density is immeasurable and that an actual value cannot be assigned to it?

A thing may be very very large, or very very small, but certain rules of the universe are constant, even if equations break down.  An equation breaking down only means the equation doesn’t have anything to say about what it is describing.  Saying the universe was infinite small, smaller than a piece of fruit, may not be accurate if we are talking about the fact that energy is neither created nor destroyed.

So all the energy & and matter existing in our universe now came from a time long ago called the Plank Era when matter didn’t even exist, only radiation.  But all that radiation surely existed in some amount of space.  It would go on to be the material from which all the first elementary particles and atoms of the early early universe were formed.  Fast forward to our universe today, and can we still say that energy, and the energy in the entire universe, has remained constant and has neither been created nor destroyed, but merely changed?

And now what about the empty space our universe now sits within and which simultaneously sits within our universe?  If you fill an empty glass with water, then the time before you filled the glass full of water is surely a time when the empty glass itself still existed.  In this case, the water is the energy and matter in the universe, and the empty glass is the empty space in which it now occupies.

While the flow of water is dynamic from the start of filling the glass to when the water is finished being poured, the shape of the glass does not change.  You’d be right to point out that our universe is actually expanding, and so this metaphor breaks down.  And yes, we need not fear about water overflowing or our imagined empty glass breaking because of the water contained within it.

Black holes are known to still have size and sizable event horizons.  Within a blackhole and within its event horizon are the remains of a once living star.  Each particle of that star could theoretically be accounted for.  While it is often said that space-time ends at a black-hole’s event horizon, the fact is that the universe around the black-hole still exists with its own space and time. Furthermore, the space and time within a black-hole, although not suitable for life, is not any different from any other astronomical object, be it star or planet, that is not hospitable to life.

Just as blackholes are not infinitely small, but have sizable event horizons and the remnants of their former stars within them, then a universe with billions of galaxies each with billions of stars, each with their own sizes, matter, and energy, surely could not have once existed in an infinitely small space.  Even if equations point to it once existing in a much smaller state that it’s current state, “much smaller” and “very small” are very different from infinitely small.  Trusting an equation or math in general is not enough, as we know equations often fail and break-down in other circumstances and the values the equations give us are not accurate to the phenomenon they were created to model.

Therefore, it is important to remember that models of the universe  are not the universe.